Our Friends & Associates

Site photos a big hit

If a picture tells a thousand words, our construction photos tell even more. Watch some great Brisbane renovation projects being built and learn what goes into a building to make it strong.

Our photo of the week this week is Julian Kajewski on site in Banyo, Brisbane where a house extension is well underway by Ascot builder James Maguire Construction. Designed by clever building designer Roger Cook of Roger Cook Design, the double storey extension is ready for cladding and roof sheeting.

Matthew Cornell of Cornell Engineers Brisbane did the timber frame inspection this week – aided by Julian who is studying construction management in Brisbane.

Julian Kajewski on site.

The photo generated a flurry of likes and comments on Cornell Engineers FaceBook page. It reinforces Cornell Engineers’ philosophy that engineering isn’t about buildings – it’s about people working with people.

Matthew Cornell said,”Like our FaceBook page! We’re always updating the page with photos of our jobs under construction. It’s a great way to take the mystery out of the building process. Structural engineers needn’t be the only one that get to appreciate the beauty of the structure under the skin of houses.”

Head over to Cornell Engineer’s FaceBook page here.


Want fewer Slab Cracks? Which residential slab system should you choose?

Which type of residential slab system should you choose if you want fewer slab cracks in your house slab? Should you choose a waffle slab or a conventional raft footing and slab when building a new house? Does it even matter if your house slab cracks?

Before we get started, we need to understand what concrete is and why it cracks.

What is Concrete?

Concrete is like a cake mixture; except the cake is made with cement, sand, rocks, and water.

When mixed, the water and the cement react with each other to make a glue that binds the sand and rocks together.

The concrete cake mixture is poured from concrete trucks or cement mixers into slab formwork. The mixture is spread out and allowed to dry (cure).

Four Types of Cracks in Concrete

There are three types of cracks concrete that structural engineers that normally investigate. Plastic shrinkage cracks, plastic settlement cracks and structural overload cracks.

Plastic Shrinkage Cracks

These cracks normally ‘appear’ within a couple of days of pouring the concrete.

Actually, they actually within the first few hours of the concrete being poured before the concrete has any strength.

Typical Shrinkage Crack in Concrete

As the concrete mixture dries out the glue starts to harden – but the exposed concrete surfaces dry faster than the rest of the mixture. As the surface dries out it shrinks – as a woollen jumper shrinks in the wash.

The concrete jumper pulls tight on the surface of the concrete (like a shrunken jumper on a a full-size footballer). On the inside, the concrete is still wet. The surface concrete does not have much strength yet so as it pulls tight over the wet concrete it stretches a little bit tight until <CRACK>. The surface pulls apart slightly and a crack has formed.

This type of cracking is called shrinkage cracking because it is caused when the concrete surface shrinks faster than the concrete strength can resist.

Plastic Shrinkage Cracks Look Like Random Lines

Plastic shrinkage cracks can look like random lines across a slab and sometimes they run close to and parallel to a sawn joint or tool joint but that is because the sawn joint was installed in the right location but AFTER the concrete had already cracked.

Of the slabs that I have inspected, the majority exhibited shrinkage cracking.

Plastic shrinkage cracking is more extensive when either no curing was used, the concrete was poured on a hot or windy day or the slab was over-worked, and the bleed water was pushed away during screeding.

Plastic shrinkage cracks can be controlled by adjusting the shape of the concrete to be poured, by applying water sprays to the concrete surface to stop the surface drying out too quickly, by not pouring concrete in hot weather, by applying curing compounds and evaporation retardants (special chemicals that get sprayed on the concrete) and by covering the poured surface with plastic membranes to minimise evaporation of moisture from the surface.

Plastic Settlement Cracks

Plastic settlement cracks tend to occur in more uniform patterns on the surface of a concrete slab. Typically, the cracks occur over the top of the mesh reinforcement (cracks spaced at multiples of 20cm) or along footing beams.

Settlement Cracks in a concrete slab

They occur when the wet concrete settles under its own weight and is ‘held up’ by the reinforcing mesh.

They are caused by inadequate compaction of the wet concrete. These cracks can be prevented by ensuring the concrete is adequately compacted and vibrated when it is poured.

Sometimes, in plastic settlement cracks also are caused by concreting in hot weather when the concrete dries out quicker around the hot reinforcement. These cracks can be avoided by not pouring concrete in hot weather or by cooling the concrete reinforcement before pouring the concrete.

Pure Shrinkage Cracks

As the whole body of concrete cures, it also shrinks slightly. If the ends or sides of a concrete slab or beam are restrained by footings, walls, or other structures then the concrete element will go into tension. As soon as the tensile forces exceed the capacity of the drying concrete it will crack to relieve those stresses.

Steel reinforcement is used in concrete to resist these forces. Cracks form but they are held tightly closed by the reinforcement.

For slabs where cracking is intolerable, substantially more reinforcement must be used to control these cracks.

Don’t be fooled into thinking that “low shrinkage concrete” can be used to prevent these shrinkage forces. Low shrinkage concrete does not equal early age crack control

Structural Overload Cracks

The fourth type of slab cracking occurs when concrete has been overloaded. Steel reinforcement is placed inside the concrete to distribute or to resist the tensile forces that develop in a structural slab.

Structural cracks form when the forces in the concrete are more than the steel and concrete can resist or when the steel reinforcement has been placed in the wrong position.

An example of a structural overload cracks might be observed after a heavy load is dropped on a concrete slab or along a concrete beam that has been loaded beyond it ‘cracking moment’.

Structural overload cracks are an extremely important safety aspect of structural concrete – particularly for suspended concrete slabs and beams. When designed appropriately, concrete should fail slowly enough to give the occupants enough time to identify the cracks and act – either to evacuate the building, to strengthen the building or to condemn the building.

We rarely see structural overload cracks in a slab on ground house slabs, so we’ll ignore this type of cracking for now.

When Is Slab Cracking a Cause for Concern?

Cracks in concrete are very common. So, when is slab cracking a cause for concern?

Hairline Cracks

Hairline cracks generally will not affect the strength of your house slab because they often don’t penetrate right through the concrete. They are often surface cracks and are controlled by proper placement of the slab reinforcement (around 30mm to 40mm below the surface).

Hairline cracks in older slabs tend to fray and might appear wider at the surface but when I have inspected core samples taken through older cracks, once again the crack stops at the reinforcement.

Hairline cracks therefore are not a major problem for most concrete slabs.

Cracks Less Than 2mm Wide

Cracks in concrete ground slabs are more noteworthy if they are up to 2mm wide but they still do not draw a lot of attention from building regulators. Queensland and New South Wales governments recommend monitoring these cracks for 12 months. If the cracks are still no wider than 2mm they are not considered a defect.

Homeowners however may view 2mm cracks in an exposed concrete slab a little bit differently. At 2mm wide, slab cracks are quite noticeable. Several 2mm wide cracks may cause some dissatisfaction in a homeowner so we recommend builders take all precautions to minimise slab cracking.

Several 2mm wide slab cracks could be grounds for further investigation to determine whether the builder has complied with the building contract.

Slab Cracks More than 2mm Wide

These cracks require further assessment and should be referred to the builder then the building registration board, and/or a structural engineer:

  • Distinct cracks: around 2mm wide and accompanied by 10mm to 15mm change in offset from a 3m straightedge centred over the defect.
  • Wide cracks: 2-4mm cracks and accompanied by 15mm to 25mm change in offset from a 3m straightedge centred over the defect.
  • Gaps in slab: 4mm-10mm wide cracks and more than 25mm change in offset from a 3m straightedge centred over the defect.

Issues to be investigated should include rising damp, termite proofing, ground movement and compliance of the poured slab with the specification.

Waffle Slab vs Raft Slab

Now. Which residential slab is more likely to crack? The waffle slab or the conventional raft slab?

Plastic Shrinkage Cracking

The same plastic shrinkage cracks will occur regardless of whether it is waffle slab or conventional slab. The way the slab is cured is the controlling factor in controlling plastic shrinkage cracks.

So, no clear winner yet.

Plastic Settlement Cracking

We saw that plastic settlement cracks are caused by poor compaction of wet concrete and the concrete slumping over the mesh reinforcement.

Again this cracking can occur just as easily on both types of slab if the mesh isn’t cooled or the slab concrete isn’t vibrated. Still no winner in the raft slab vs waffle slab shoot out!

Pure Shrinkage Cracks

The only type of cracking that might be different between waffle slabs compared to conventional slabs would be pure shrinkage caused by the concrete trying to shrink in volume as it cures.

These cracks do not follow the mesh and sometimes start in internal corners. You will also see shrinkage in long, thin slabs where there are no control joints.

In waffle slabs the slab can shrink more freely because there is less restraint by the ground to the slab contracting. In conventional slabs, the edge beams in the ground stop the slab shrinking in overall length. Engineers use heavier mesh in larger house slabs to counter these shrinkage forces. So, waffle slabs just took the lead!

Overloaded Slab Cracks

Concrete slabs will crack when they are overloaded. The steel reinforcement in most concrete ground slabs is there to control the width of cracks under normal conditions. When a slab is overloaded, the steel stretches and cracks become visible.

A stronger slab system can take more load before it cracks. In theory there is no real winner here because waffle slabs and raft slabs are designed for similar loads and will behave similarly when overloaded.

However, raft slabs are cast against the ground whereas waffle slabs are cast onto polystyrene void formers and strips of concrete. The raft slab edges back a point. An overloaded raft slab is less likely to crack because it is cast onto the ground and normally the ground will take more load than a polystyrene void former.

Which Slab is Less Likely to Crack?

So, are waffle slabs less likely to crack than conventional raft slabs? My opinion is a reserved yes. The problems that cause cracks in ground slabs affect both slab types. There should be less shrinkage stresses and fewer cracks in a waffle slab, but a raft slab is less likely to crack if it is overloaded.

A Note on Crack Repair

Once shrinkage cracks and plastic settlement cracks have formed in concrete slabs on ground they are very difficult to repair. So, it is always better to take the effort to prevent them when pouring.

However, if cracks have already appeared, they can be disguised with one of these techniques:

  • Filling with a fine-grained cementitious grout.
  • Demolition and removal and replacement of the slab section.
  • Tiling.
  • Spray paving.

Call Cornell Engineers for advice on cracks in your slab and the best rectification method.


For those unfamiliar with some of the terms, refer to our page of Structural Engineering Terminology

Need More Advice?

Need more advice about cracking in waffle slabs and raft slabs? Contact Us or Get a Quote.

5 Questions

Five Questions with Matt Cornell

Matthew Cornell 

Hi. I’m Matthew Cornell. I’m a structural engineer with 20+ years structural engineering experience in residential, industrial and small commercial jobs in Queensland. These are my 5 questions.

1. How did you become an engineer?

At school I aimed high and worked hard. I was interested in science, building things, electronics and computers. Spurred on and supported by my fantastic parents, I achieved decent Year 12 results and went to James Cook University to study engineering.

At that time I didn’t know I wanted to be a structural engineer – it just seemed like a good mix of science and fun.

2. Where do you live and why?

I live in Brisbane now but I grew up west of Mackay, Queensland in a sugar-producing town called Marian.

Mackay was right for me growing up. It’s a great place to go to school and has a lot of spirit. I moved around after university but ended up back in Mackay for 10 years until 2013.

Now my home is in Brisbane.

Brisbane is a great place to be growing our business and there’s so much to do on weekends.

There’s a wealth of great people with the same friendly atmosphere I love from my time in Mackay.

We live on the north side of the river because of its proximity to the airport and our office in Hendra but my wife and I love exploring and finding new places to have breakfast and dinner. We’ve travelled as far as the Sunshine Coast and the Gold Coast for a nice meal.

I think Brisbane has a lot of potential and I’m excited to have an office there.

3. What do you like about being an engineer?

I like helping people look after their properties. Property is a great wealth-building tool but it can also be a great nest egg.

When we design and document projects, we do it carefully and with smart engineering. It’s the best way to provide value for money.

Not all homes and building perform to expectation. So we also spend a lot of time inspecting buildings and finding ways to strengthen, stiffen or replace elements that are up to standard.

New homes, renovations and house repairs are my favourite types of project. I have great clients that appreciate the service we offer. Working with these people is the thing I like best about my job.

4. What is your greatest challenge?

As a business owner, my greatest challenge is taking time off.

Even though we have a great team of structural engineers in our office, our clients love to know they have direct access to me by phone and email.

We have projects in the design stage and construction stage constantly and I try to be always available if unexpected conditions arise on site.

That makes it hard to go away for any length of time.

My wife, Debbie, is awesome and understands that I have to answer my phone on holidays – and that makes it ok.

5. Where to from here?

Cornell Engineers has always been about being in the right place to provide a service to people who need help with structural engineering.

The Queensland market place has changed since we started back in 2003 and we change our business with it.

We’ll always be here for Queenslanders (and hose further away). Our experience and local knowledge mean that we’re a great choice for looking after your property whatever stage you’re at.

As we say: Building. Maintaining. Repairing. We’re Cornell Engineers.

Our Friends & Associates

CQ Rescue

For many years Cornell Engineers was a proud supporter of CQ Rescue. RACQ CQ Rescue  is a community helicopter rescue service with an operating base in Mackay.

Anyone who travels the highway north,south or west of Mackay knows the value CQ Rescue provides – a superfast trip to hospital with an intensive care paramedic the whole way should you need it.

It’s a great rescue service staffed by caring professionals. As a Community Helicopter Provider (CHP), RACQ CQ Rescue relies heavily upon the community to provide funding for operational purposes. These funds are sourced through sponsorships, business donations, workplace giving programs, annual appeals, bequests, and fundraising events.

Cornell Engineers urges you to join in support of this awesome service.

5 Questions

Five Questions with Glen Place

Learn about Building Designer Glen Place

My name is Glen Place.

My business Glen Place T/A Place Designs has been in business as Place Designs since 01/07/1980.

I have a Building Design & Builder: Open Licence (QBCC Lic 12080) and our office is in Badila Court, Mount Pleasant, Mackay.

This is my website and these are my 5 questions:

1. What sort of projects do you prefer?

I prefer new Residential and Commercial projects as they are more challenging and rewarding.

However all project are treated equally as they have real meaning for our clients.

While our business is focused towards the residential market, we also provide comprehensive services to commercial and industrial development and business renovations including villa units, commercial projects, retirement villages and hospital staff accommodation.

2. How do you add value to projects?

I provide the client with sustainable options moving towards a more energy efficient and healthy building. This helps to increase the longevity of the building.

I believe I have the ability to identify, assess and recommend design features of buildings which promote sustainable and energy efficiency.

I’m also proud of my ability to analyse complex technical issues associated with building design and materials and communication effectively in a succinct, accurate and coherent fashion.

The design philosophy at Place Designs is a combination of your needs and desires and the contribution of our dynamic design team.

Clean, simple, elegant building lines dominate our design thoughts for exteriors and efficient and functional flow is our focus for internal layouts.

We aim to employ modern building techniques and innovative building products to present a design that is functional.

 3. What is a future trend you would like to see develop?

I would like to see buildings become more accessible to all people. I would like the see the use of more healthy and durable building materials being used in buildings.

I would like building to be designed suit the climate and be more aesthetic within their surroundings.

4. Describe a recent project where you had a positive influence.

This current market this is a difficult one, but a recent project where we met the brief and designed a great house was Mackay Harbour. It’s presently under construction by Mackay builder Barry Green.

5. How does Cornell Engineers add value to your product?

Cornell Engineers are attentive to our needs and are quick to understand our vision and assists us achieve our goals.

The staff at Cornell Engineers work with us as a collaborative team and don’t carry out their designs in isolation.

Cornell Engineers will work with us to provide the best outcome for our client.